Basics of Knowledge

Meteorology - the science that studies the physical phenomena and processes occurring in the atmosphere, especially in its lower layer - the troposphere. It examines how these processes influence atmospheric processes and the weather in examined area (source: Wikipedia).

A brief history of meteorology.

Already in ancient Greece there are records of tentative of predicting and analyzing the weather events , but the breakthrough came in 1781. The first network of meteorological " stations " had been created then, founded by councilor Johann Jakob Hammer . 39 meteorological observation stations stretched from the Ural Mountains to the North America and from Greenland to the Mediterranean Sea. The project had been recruited clergy , counselors and city officials . Their task was to measure the pressure ,temperature and humidity , every day at 7:00 , 14:00 and 21:00 local time . To this day, the measured is being effectuated according to the schedule. The biggest breakthrough in the history of meteorology was the invention of the telegraph in 1851. Thanks to the telegraph the rapid exchange of weather data from any place in the world was possible. To this day, the observation point still exists from that period. It is located in Germany, at the top Peissberg in Upper Bavaria . Nowadays very advanced technologies are used for weather forecasting. Data are collected by means of geostationary satellites and weather stations , weather radars and lightning detectors , what allows more accurate weather forecasting.

The main reason of meteorological phenomena on the Earth is the Sun. The sun determines the amount of heat that reaches the Earth's surface , and hence the amount of evaporated water and cloud formation centers, high and low pressure , and consequently the formation of winds, which affects weather around the world.

The meteorological phenomena include the presence of clouds , atmospheric discharge, rain, snow , hail, the presence of the rainbow, the northern lights , fog, etc.

Clouds depending on temperature have different shapes and sizes. The names in Latin are used to classify clouds. This method of classification was invented by English chemist Luke Howard in 1803 . The Latin name of clouds are:
- Cirrus , which means " curl of hair "
- Stratus , meaning " layer "
- Cumulus , meaning " heap "
- Nimbus , which means " rain "

Clouds can be divided into four groups . The first three groups are distinguished on the basis of the height at which the base is above ground level :
- High clouds from 5 to 13km ,
- Medium clouds : 2 to 6 km ,
- Low clouds : up to 2 km above the ground.
The fourth group consists of clouds with a vertical construction . These are the clouds really expanded vertically ,that is why they cannot be classified on the basis of the height of their base .

Wind always blows from the high pressure area to the low pressure area . The strength and direction of the wind is also affected by the terrain. Generally, the center constitutes a high-pressure turbine directing air masses . Low pressure air flows into the center of the anticyclone in the northern hemisphere as clockwise , in the southern hemisphere it is inversely. When, after a few days of sun , windless weather we feel strong gusts of wind , it means that the anticyclone gives way to the depression, which means bad weather . Conversely, if after rainy days we remark the wind intensity , it may signify coming of high and the arrival of sunny days .

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